# How to Teach Your Children to Do Mental Math

It is important that everybody learn to do some calculations mentally when paper and pencil or a calculator is not handy. This article, Part 1, suggests a few beginning mental math strategies that a parent might help a child learn at home.

Mental math should not be confused with the memorization of basic mathematics facts— such as knowing the times-tables by heart. While memorizing basic facts makes mental math easier, doing mathematics mentally requires both memorized facts and the manipulation (strategies) of numbers and operations in order to solve problems that are much more complex than the simple number facts we can easily memorize.

The following mental math strategies are arranged in general order from the easiest strategies children can learn to perform in their head to more difficult and challenging mental math gymnastics.

Doing addition problems in your head is probably the best way to start doing mental math. Even young children—5, 6, and 7 year olds—can do the easiest strategies below.

while the first few may seem trivial to adults, they are a good way for children to begin learning to do mental math.

Adding one means hearing a number, then saying one number up—or counting up one number. The best way to introduce this to your children is to say a number out loud and then, after allowing they time to think, have them tell you the next higher number. Make it fun by having your children tell you a number and then you tell them the next number. Start with low numbers and, when your children are able to count higher, move to larger numbers.

Adding two means hearing a number, and then saying the number that is two more. To do this, children can either mentally add two or count up by two. If you first teach your children to count by twos: 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, etc., it will be easier for them to add two mentally. However, remember that they will also have to learn how to count by the odd numbers: 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, Also, if children understand that any odd number, plus 2, will always be another odd number, and that any even number, plus two, will always be another even number, these mathematics concepts can help them check their answers mentally.

## Counting-On

When mentally counting-on, children and adults often resort to using their fingers to count up (or down), simultaneously counting on their fingers while they count in their heads. If your children use this handy device, let them. It is not harmful if it helps to make counting-on a useful mental math strategy.

## Making-Ten(s)

Since ten is the basis of our number system, students who know all the single-digit combinations that equal 10 can make good use of them in doing mental math. The making ten strategy involves memorizing the number combinations that add to ten: 7 + 3, 8 + 2, 5 + 5, etc.—they are not as useful if children need to think hard to remember these combinations. Once students memorize these, counting-on or other strategies become easier. For example, 6 + 4 = 10 may be a trivial problem, but if you know your combinations of ten, this strategy can then be extended to harder problems, such as 76 + 4, since 76 + 4 = 70 + 6 + 4 = 70 + 10 = 80—easy!

## Rearrange Numbers and Operations

On paper, we tend to calculate with numbers in the order they are given. Doing mathematics mentally frees us to do calculations in the order we choose and can do more easily. For example, if we do 6 – 3 + 2 + 4 + 8 in our heads, we can rearrange it as (6 + 4) + (2 + 8) – 3—two combinations of 10, then subtract 3 last. However, to do this, a child must be able to remember the numbers and rearrange them mentally. This is hard for some people.

## Visualizing a Mental Number Line

Number lines, such as those found on the wall in many classrooms, are a visual model of our number system and can be very helpful for children who need to see how numbers are logically arranged. If children can close their eyes and visualize a mental number line, this too can be helpful in doing mental math. The best way to help students picture a number line is to post a paper number line in your home where your children can see it and use it regularly when they do mathematics. They will begin to notice all the wonderful number patterns, the twos, the fives, the tens—and many more. If they can then see the number line when they close their eyes, they can use these patterns to do mental math.

The number line can teach students that adding ten is easy because ten is an easy “jump” up the number line. No matter what number you start with, the one’s digit stays the same but the ten’s digit increases by one. For example: 5 + 10 = 15, 12 + 10 = 22, 23 + 10 = 33, etc.

Once adding ten is easy to do, adding nine is the next strategy to learn. To add nine, a student just adds ten, and then counts down by one. A child would mentally say 5 + 9 = 5 + 10 – 1 = 15 – 1. Once understood, this mental math strategy is almost as simple as adding ten.

## Double Numbers

Making use of doubles—5 + 5, 7 + 7, etc.—is a bit harder, but can be very useful for mental math. Doubles come up often in calculations, so if all the single-digit doubles are memorized, students can combine these known facts with the mental math strategies already mentioned. For example, when faced with the problem 76 + 6, students can think of it as 70 + 6 + 6. If they remember that 6 + 6 = 12, then they can rearrange the problem as 70 + 12, and then again rearrange the problem as 70 + 10 + 2 = 82—making it an easy mental math problem.

## Near-Doubles

Once students have memorized their doubles; the use of near-doubles in mental math follows easily. For example, in the expression 5 + 6, if students first remember the double, 5 + 5 = 10, then it is easy to add one more, getting an answer of 11. Children actually do not have to memorize the near-doubles if they know their doubles. For example, in the equation 37 + 8, when children use the near doubles strategy, it follows that 30 + 7 + 7 + 1 = 30 + 14 + 1 = 44 + 1 = 45.

We frequently do mathematics differently in our heads than we do with paper and pencil. The typical way to add a pair of two-digit numbers is to add the digits in the ones place first, carry ten if necessary, add the digits in the tens place next, and finish by combining the tens and ones results. However, many people can keep track of these calculations more easily in their minds if they reverse this order—adding the tens first, remembering that number, then adding the ones, and only then combining the tens and ones. For example, in the problem 65 + 26, if students first mentally calculate 60 + 20 = 80, the number 80 is pretty easy to remember—to store away mentally for a few moments. If they then add the ones, 5 + 6 = 11, they can recall the easily remembered number, and compute 80 + 11 = 91. Not everyone prefers front-end addition, but those who do often use this strategy without thinking about it.

## “Friendly Numbers” Strategy

certain number pairs go together nicely and are easy to work within our heads; we call these friendly numbers. For example, 75 + 25 totals 100—we know this well from using money. Although we do not often get many problems as simple as 75 + 25, we can combine this friendly number strategy with other mental math strategies. For example, to add 78 + 25 students would instead think 75 + 25 + 3, changing it into two friendly numbers and one easily added number instead.

## Balancing Strategy

Balancing numbers before you add them is a variation of the friendly number strategy. This strategy involves “borrowing” one or more from one number and “trading” it to the other number to make two numbers that are friendly. For example, 68 + 57 are not friendly numbers, but if you mentally borrow 2 from 57 and add it to the 68, the problem now becomes 70 + 55—a much easier problem to do mentally.

## A Bit of Mental Math Advice

For some students these mental math strategies will be interesting and fun—and may even make them feel mathematically powerful. However, what appeals to one child may be uninteresting and hard to another. If there is one important bit of advice before you share any of these strategies with your children, it is: go slow and proceed only IF your children enjoy learning how to do mathematics in their head. A few minutes of playing with mental math are plenty—do not make it tedious. If learning mental math tricks is not fun for your children, it is best if you stop and look for other areas of mathematics, such as geometry or puzzles, that will appeal to your children more than mental math.

by Paul Giganti, Jr., CMC Math Festival Program

CMC ComMuniCator

pgiganti@berkeley.edu

## ALOHA National Competition at Mirage Banquet Hall

You’re invited!

Mirage Banquet Hall

(#201-17767 64 Ave surrey B.C.)

Doors open at 11am

Hope to see you there!

## Teaching Math : How Important is the concept of Sequence and an Individualized Pace

Teaching sequential math is just as important as teaching someone how to drive by showing them one step at a time.

## Sequence is Important

Imagine if someone tried to teach you to drive by giving you the keys and telling you to drive home. Without learning basic skills like how to brake or use turn signals, you would be ill-prepared to actually drive and would probably wind up crashing.

Teaching sequential math is just as important as teaching someone how to drive by showing them one step at a time.  This is mostly understood in the very beginning of a child’s education when we teach numbers and basic addition and subtraction. But often, the further along we go, the less the emphasis is on sequential learning. For example, mastering the order of operations is essential to mastering algebra, but frequently order of operations is only dwelt on briefly and then it’s on to the next topic before students have the chance to really master the material. When we learn in sequence, mastering each concept before moving on to the next, we are able to tackle harder problems and learn tougher concepts more easily because we have a foundation on which that learning can take place. When we learn out of sequence or move on to the next topic before we’ve mastered the current topic, it becomes much more difficult to continue learning.

There is a problem with sequential learning: students don’t learn concepts at the same speed and pace as other students.  A student may learn one math concept in a matter of days while another concept takes him weeks or longer to master. One of the problems with modern education is that there is often no time for a student to work through difficult math concepts until full mastery is achieved. Sequential learning must go hand in hand with an individualized pace for each student.

As parents, we need to be proactive in making sure that our children are mastering math.

## Sequence Teaching Tips

1. Ask your kids if they feel comfortable with the speed at which the math is being taught. Take additional time to focus on foundation concepts that they struggle with to help them master the material.

2. Frequently review previously learned math skills with your children — if your children are learning basic multiplication, review addition with them to make sure they have mastered it.

3. Pay attention if your children seem continually frustrated with learning math — frustration is often a sign that they have not mastered previous material and that is interfering with new learning. Learning math in sequence and at an individualized pace is absolutely crucial for success in learning.

# Math coaching for kids is highly important, research indicates.

one of the abilities needed to achieve success inside the 21st century, basic math is becoming an increasingly important part of early formative years education.

in line with the country wide affiliation for the training of younger youngsters, the maths skills that scholars study at a young age build a foundation for future mastering endeavors and can be a very good indicator of whether or not or no longer young people may be capable of meet and conquer new challenges as they mature.

“Mastery of early math abilties predicts now not most effective destiny math fulfillment, it also predicts destiny analyzing fulfillment,” Greg Duncan, a researcher at Northwestern college, stated in a assertion.

an academic observe of 35,000 preschoolers performed by Duncan found out that the importance of early math skills is paramount. in line with the research, college students who input kindergarten with primary math talents and are capable of construct on the ones competencies are more likely to experience subsequent educational fulfillment, regardless of whether or not they’re dealing with social or emotional problems.

“we discover the single maximum essential component in predicting later educational fulfillment is that children start school with a mastery of early math and literacy standards,” Duncan stated.
A awesome deal of research and professional opinion echoes Duncan’s findings. even though math teaching techniques within the classroom have advanced over the decades to offer college students a extra threat of success, dad and mom can do a remarkable deal to help their youngsters at home with the aid of speakme approximately numbers and mathematics.

There are a diffusion of simple math sports that parents can appoint to engage their kids and prepare them for simple math. as an instance, parents of younger youngsters can factor out numbers on signs and symptoms while walking or riding. it is also important to insert numbers into everyday conversations, asking children how many toys they plan on gambling with or what number of motors are inside the driveway.
With parental assist, teachers can construct on these crucial math skills through introducing youngsters to key mathematical standards and fostering trouble-solving skills at school. instructional films and adaptive learning programs also can enhance the math skills of students who are developing up in an an increasing number of digitized world.

in step with NAEYC, kids show a natural interest in mathematics at a young age, and it is crucial that mother and father and instructors take advantage of this vital time in a child’s education to build the muse that will allow that hobby and engagement to continue well into adulthood.

If dad and mom and teachers get the communication about arithmetic going and continue to combine instruction into college students’ lives, young kids may be put on the path to achievement inside the twenty first century.

## Call 1-844 88-ALOHA (25642)  to schedule a Free Session!

Kids aged between 5 and 6 years are eligible for the ALOHA Junior program. This is a prime age for developing mental arithmetic skills. Students are provided Abacus Math Classes where they use Abacus and standardized books with a carefully structured syllabus for the little ones. The books are Activity based which makes Math interesting at this level. ALOHA Junior molds and motivates the minds of the children by introducing interesting techniques using abacus. ALOHA Junior initially uses ABACUS as an ideal learning tool to teach fundamental Math. The activity based materials encourage their minds to think in different possible directions.

#### Features of the ALOHA Junior Program

• Learning becomes a fun filled activity which keeps the little ones interested
• Small batches to provide individual attention focusing on each kid’s needs
• Well trained teachers who can efficiently handle kindergartners and first graders
• By the end of this program, children are able to handle numbers with multiple digits

#### The Benefits of ALOHA Junior Program

1. Creates a strong foundation in math.
2. Increases memory power, focusing skills and confidence at an early age.
3. Helps in developing a liking for math.
4. Improves concentration skills for a more focused learning

#### Program Structure

The Junior Level course consists of 10 levels, with a 3 month period in each level. The classes are once a week and the time duration is 2 hours. A Performance evaluation is completed at the end of each level.